Prednisone is a hormonal drug that is chemically analogous to hydrocortisone synthesized by the adrenal glands. Moreover, the active ingredient is 4 times stronger than the natural one. The main purpose is to stop allergic reactions, suppress inflammatory processes, and prevent anaphylactic shock.
What is Prednisone for: indications for use
The tool is indicated for use in various diseases. Directions of use depend on the form of release. So, solution for injection and tablets are used in case of such disorders and diseases:
- multiple sclerosis;
- lungs’ cancer;
- small chorea;
- allergic diseases of various nature;
- acute alveolitis;
- bronchial asthma;
- rheumatic heart disease;
- hypocorticism (primary and secondary);
- dysfunction of the adrenal cortex, including congenital;
- autoimmune diseases;
- excess calcium associated with cancer;
- nephrotic syndrome;
- in case of rejection of transplanted organs after surgery;
- inflammation of the digestive system, etc.
Prednisone is also used in emergencies. For example, injections and tablets are used to relieve food-related allergies and to relieve anaphylactic shock.
The ointment is used externally to treat skin diseases. Drops are used to treat eye diseases.
Contraindications for use
There is a fairly large list of contraindications for the use of prednisolone. The most extensive list is associated with a ban on the use of injection solution and tablets. They cannot be used in the presence of such pathologies:
- individual intolerance;
- tuberculosis, mycosis and other infectious pathologies;
- myocardial infarction (if recently transferred);
- immunodeficiency associated with HIV;
- diseases of the digestive system (including ulcerative lesions, diverticulitis);
- the period after the vaccine (you need to wait at least 2 months before and 2 weeks after);
- severe renal or hepatic impairment;
- thyroid disorders;
- acute psychosis;
- urolithiasis pathology;
- systemic osteoporosis;
- severe obesity (from stage 3);
- myasthenia gravis;
- closed-angle and open-angle glaucoma;
- lymphadenitis, aggravated after the BCG vaccination;
- pregnancy and breastfeeding at any stage.
Prednisone tablets: instruction
The tablets are taken at a dosage of 20-30 mg once a day. For maintenance therapy, a dosage of 5 to 10 mg is used. In some cases, for example, if nephrotic syndrome is diagnosed, the dosage is increased in consultation with the doctor.
Children are given no more than 2 mg per kilogram of weight. The daily dosage is divided by 4-6 times; for maintenance therapy, no more than 0.6 mg per 1 kg of body weight is given.
If long-term therapy with prednisolone (usually more than 3 weeks) is to be discontinued, withdrawal should be carried out gradually and step by step in order to avoid “withdrawal syndrome”. Abrupt discontinuation of therapy can be fatal. The dose should be reduced over weeks or even months, depending on the size of the dose, the duration of therapy, the patient’s underlying illness and the patient’s individual response to treatment. It is unlikely that abrupt withdrawal of prednisolone treatment for less than 3 weeks will lead to clinically significant suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system in most patients, however, it should be borne in mind that the response to corticosteroids and the tolerance of their withdrawal can vary widely. Thus, it is necessary to consider the issue of a gradual dose reduction when discontinuing drugs after short courses or when taking higher doses and in patients with other risk factors for the development of adrenocortical insufficiency.
The dosage regimen with a gradual dose reduction should be selected individually. Most patients tolerate a 2.5mg dose reduction of prednisolone every 3-7 days until a dose of 5-10mg / day is reached. Higher doses should be reduced gradually over 9-12 months.